使用二进制方式搭建k8s集群 – 记忆角落

使用二进制方式搭建k8s集群

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使用二进制方式搭建k8s集群

安装要求

在开始之前,部署Kubernetes集群机器需要满足以下几个条件:

准备环境

名称 IP 组件
k8s-m1 192.168.100.104 kube-apiserver, kube-controller-manager, kube-scheduler, etcd
k8s-n1 192.168.100.105 kubelet, kube-proxy, docker etcd

操作系统初始化配置

所有机器执行

#根据规划设置主机名
hostnamectl set-hostname <hostname> #分别设置为k8s-m1、k8s-n1
hostname #确认是否配置生效

# 关闭防火墙 如果是minimal安装,默认没有装 firewalld
systemctl stop firewalld
systemctl disable firewalld

#关闭selinux
setenforce 0 && sed -i 's/^SELINUX=.*/SELINUX=disabled/' /etc/selinux/config

#关闭swap
swapoff -a && sed -i '/ swap / s/^\(.*\)$/#\1/g' /etc/fstab

#文件数设置
ulimit -SHn 65535
cat >> /etc/security/limits.conf <<EOF
* soft nofile 655360
* hard nofile 131072
* soft nproc 655350
* hard nproc 655350
* seft memlock unlimited
* hard memlock unlimitedd
EOF

#在master添加hosts
cat >> /etc/hosts << EOF
192.168.100.104 k8s-m1
192.168.100.105 k8s-n1
EOF

#ping k8s-n1 #确认配置生效


#将桥接的IPv4流量传递到iptables的链
cat > /etc/sysctl.d/k8s.conf << EOF
#开启网桥模式【重要】
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables=1
#开启网桥模式【重要】
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-ip6tables=1
net.ipv4.ip_forward=1
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_recycle=0
# 禁止使用 swap 空间,只有当系统 OOM 时才允许使用它
vm.swappiness=0
# 不检查物理内存是否够用
vm.overcommit_memory=1
# 开启 OOM
vm.panic_on_oom=0
fs.inotify.max_user_instances=8192
fs.inotify.max_user_watches=1048576
fs.file-max=52706963
fs.nr_open=52706963
#关闭ipv6【重要】
net.ipv6.conf.all.disable_ipv6=1
net.netfilter.nf_conntrack_max=2310720
EOF

# 加载网桥过滤模块
modprobe br_netfilter
# 查看网桥过滤模块是否成功加载
lsmod | grep br_netfilter
# 重新刷新配置
sysctl -p /etc/sysctl.d/k8s.conf


#时间同步
yum install ntpdate -y
ntpdate time.windows.com

#关闭及禁用邮件服务
systemctl stop postfix && systemctl disable postfix

部署etcd集群

节点名称 IP
etcd-1 192.168.100.104
etcd-2 192.168.100.105

为了节省机器,这里与k8s节点机器复用,也可以独立于k8s集群之外部署,只要apiserver能连接就行。

准备cfssl证书生成工具

cfssl是一个开源的证书管理工具,使用json文件生成证书,相比openssl更方便使用。

找任意一台服务器操作,这里用k8s-m1节点。

cd ~
yum install wget -y
wget https://pkg.cfssl.org/R1.2/cfssl_linux-amd64
wget https://pkg.cfssl.org/R1.2/cfssljson_linux-amd64
wget https://pkg.cfssl.org/R1.2/cfssl-certinfo_linux-amd64

chmod +x cfssl_linux-amd64 cfssljson_linux-amd64 cfssl-certinfo_linux-amd64

mv cfssl_linux-amd64 /usr/local/bin/cfssl
mv cfssljson_linux-amd64 /usr/local/bin/cfssljson
mv cfssl-certinfo_linux-amd64 /usr/local/bin/cfssl-certinfo

#确认文件移到正确的位置
[root@k8s-m1 ~]# ls -l /usr/local/bin/
总用量 18808
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 10376657 12月  7 2021 cfssl
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  6595195 12月  7 2021 cfssl-certinfo
-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root  2277873 12月  7 2021 cfssljson

生成etcd证书

自签证书颁发机构(CA)

创建工作目录:
mkdir -p ~/TLS/{etcd,k8s}
cd ~/TLS/etcd
自签CA:
cat > ca-config.json << EOF
{
  "signing": {
    "default": {
      "expiry": "87600h"
    },
    "profiles": {
      "www": {
        "expiry": "87600h",
        "usages": [
          "signing",
          "key encipherment",
          "server auth",
          "client auth"
        ]
      }
    }
  }
}
EOF

cat > ca-csr.json << EOF
{
  "CN": "etcd CA",
    "key": {
      "algo": "rsa",
      "size": 2048
    },
    "names": [
      {
        "C": "CN",
        "L": "Beijing"
      }
    ]
}
EOF
生成证书:

cfssl gencert -initca ca-csr.json | cfssljson -bare ca -

[root@k8s-m1 etcd]# cfssl gencert -initca ca-csr.json | cfssljson -bare ca -
2022/08/03 14:08:39 [INFO] generating a new CA key and certificate from CSR
2022/08/03 14:08:39 [INFO] generate received request
2022/08/03 14:08:39 [INFO] received CSR
2022/08/03 14:08:39 [INFO] generating key: rsa-2048
2022/08/03 14:08:40 [INFO] encoded CSR
2022/08/03 14:08:40 [INFO] signed certificate with serial number 604418924887599218329858727066455520143605581894
[root@k8s-m1 etcd]#
[root@k8s-m1 etcd]# ls
ca-config.json  ca.csr  ca-csr.json  ca-key.pem  ca.pem

使用自签CA签发etcd HTTPS证书

创建证书申请文件:
cat > server-csr.json << EOF
{
  "CN": "etcd",
  "hosts": [
    "192.168.100.104",
    "192.168.100.105"
  ],
  "key": {
    "algo": "rsa",
    "size": 2048
  },
  "names": [
    {
      "C": "CN",
      "L": "Beijing",
      "ST": "Beijing"
    }
  ]
}
EOF

上述文件hosts字段中IP为所有etcd及诶单的集群内部通信IP,一个都不能少!为了方便后期扩容可以多些几个预留的IP

生成证书:

cfssl gencert -ca=ca.pem -ca-key=ca-key.pem -config=ca-config.json -profile=www server-csr.json | cfssljson -bare server

[root@k8s-m1 etcd]# cfssl gencert -ca=ca.pem -ca-key=ca-key.pem -config=ca-config.json -profile=www server-csr.json | cfssljson -bare server
2022/08/03 14:14:15 [INFO] generate received request
2022/08/03 14:14:15 [INFO] received CSR
2022/08/03 14:14:15 [INFO] generating key: rsa-2048
2022/08/03 14:14:16 [INFO] encoded CSR
2022/08/03 14:14:16 [INFO] signed certificate with serial number 55081638806156491772958455162589853404077438278
2022/08/03 14:14:16 [WARNING] This certificate lacks a "hosts" field. This makes it unsuitable for
websites. For more information see the Baseline Requirements for the Issuance and Management
of Publicly-Trusted Certificates, v.1.1.6, from the CA/Browser Forum (https://cabforum.org);
specifically, section 10.2.3 ("Information Requirements").


下载二进制文件及部署etcd集群

下载二进制文件

cd ~
wget https://github.com/etcd-io/etcd/releases/download/v3.4.9/etcd-v3.4.9-linux-amd64.tar.gz

部署etcd集群

以下在节点1(k8s-m1)上操作,为简化操作,待会儿将节点1生成的所有文件拷贝到节点2(k8s-n1)

创建工作目录并解压二进制包
mkdir /opt/etcd/{bin,cfg,ssl} -p
tar zxvf etcd-v3.4.9-linux-amd64.tar.gz
mv etcd-v3.4.9-linux-amd64/{etcd,etcdctl} /opt/etcd/bin/
创建etcd配置文件
cat > /opt/etcd/cfg/etcd.conf << EOF
#[Member]
ETCD_NAME="etcd-1"
ETCD_DATA_DIR="/var/lib/etcd/default.etcd"
ETCD_LISTEN_PEER_URLS="https://192.168.100.104:2380"
ETCD_LISTEN_CLIENT_URLS="https://192.168.100.104:2379"
#[Clustering]
ETCD_INITIAL_ADVERTISE_PEER_URLS="https://192.168.100.104:2380"
ETCD_ADVERTISE_CLIENT_URLS="https://192.168.100.104:2379"
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER="etcd-1=https://192.168.100.104:2380,etcd-2=https://192.168.100.105:2380"
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_TOKEN="etcd-cluster"
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_STATE="new"
EOF
systemd管理etcd
cat > /usr/lib/systemd/system/etcd.service << EOF
[Unit]
Description=Etcd Server
After=network.target
After=network-online.target
Wants=network-online.target
[Service]
Type=notify
EnvironmentFile=/opt/etcd/cfg/etcd.conf
ExecStart=/opt/etcd/bin/etcd \
--cert-file=/opt/etcd/ssl/server.pem \
--key-file=/opt/etcd/ssl/server-key.pem \
--peer-cert-file=/opt/etcd/ssl/server.pem \
--peer-key-file=/opt/etcd/ssl/server-key.pem \
--trusted-ca-file=/opt/etcd/ssl/ca.pem \
--peer-trusted-ca-file=/opt/etcd/ssl/ca.pem \
--logger=zap
Restart=on-failure
LimitNOFILE=65536

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF
拷贝刚才生成的证书

把刚才生成的证书拷贝到配置文件中的路径:

cp ~/TLS/etcd/ca*pem ~/TLS/etcd/server*pem /opt/etcd/ssl/

将上面节点1所有的生成文件拷贝到节点2
scp -r /opt/etcd/ root@k8s-n1:/opt/
scp /usr/lib/systemd/system/etcd.service root@k8s-n1:/usr/lib/systemd/system/

然后在k8s-n1修改etcd.conf配置文件中的节点名称和当前服务器IP:

#[Member]
ETCD_NAME="etcd-2" # 修改此处,节点2改为etcd-2
ETCD_DATA_DIR="/var/lib/etcd/default.etcd"
ETCD_LISTEN_PEER_URLS="https://192.168.100.105:2380" # 修改此处为当前服务器IP
ETCD_LISTEN_CLIENT_URLS="https://192.168.100.105:2379" # 修改此处为当前服务器IP
#[Clustering]
ETCD_INITIAL_ADVERTISE_PEER_URLS="https://192.168.100.105:2380" # 修改此处为当前服务器IP
ETCD_ADVERTISE_CLIENT_URLS="https://192.168.100.105:2379" # 修改此处为当前服务器IP
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER="etcd-1=https://192.168.100.104:2380,etcd-2=https://192.168.100.105:2380"
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_TOKEN="etcd-cluster"
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_STATE="new"
分别在2个节点上操作,启动并设置开机启动
systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start etcd # (节点同时启动)
systemctl enable etcd
查看集群状态

/opt/etcd/bin/etcdctl --cacert=/opt/etcd/ssl/ca.pem --cert=/opt/etcd/ssl/server.pem --key=/opt/etcd/ssl/server-key.pem --endpoints="https://192.168.100.104:2379,https://192.168.100.105:2379" endpoint health --write-out=table

[root@k8s-n1 ~]# /opt/etcd/bin/etcdctl --cacert=/opt/etcd/ssl/ca.pem --cert=/opt/etcd/ssl/server.pem --key=/opt/etcd/ssl/server-key.pem --endpoints="https://192.168.100.104:2379,https://192.168.100.105:2379" endpoint health --write-out=table
+------------------------------+--------+-------------+-------+
|           ENDPOINT           | HEALTH |    TOOK     | ERROR |
+------------------------------+--------+-------------+-------+
| https://192.168.100.105:2379 |   true | 11.183436ms |       |
| https://192.168.100.104:2379 |   true | 11.274954ms |       |
+------------------------------+--------+-------------+-------+

安装Docker

# 两个节点都需下载
wget https://download.docker.com/linux/static/stable/x86_64/docker-19.03.9.tgz

以下在所有节点操作,这里采用二进制安装,用yum安装也一样。

解压二进制包

tar zxvf docker-19.03.9.tgz
mv docker/* /usr/bin

systemd管理docker

cat > /usr/lib/systemd/system/docker.service << EOF
[Unit]
Description=Docker Application Container Engine
Documentation=https://docs.docker.com
After=network-online.target firewalld.service
Wants=network-online.target
[Service]
Type=notify
ExecStart=/usr/bin/dockerd
ExecReload=/bin/kill -s HUP $MAINPID
LimitNOFILE=infinity
LimitNPROC=infinity
LimitCORE=infinity
TimeoutStartSec=0
Delegate=yes
KillMode=process
Restart=on-failure
StartLimitBurst=3
StartLimitInterval=60s
[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

创建配置文件

mkdir /etc/docker
cat > /etc/docker/daemon.json << EOF
{
  "registry-mirrors": [
    "https://8i25ptuf.mirror.aliyuncs.com",
    "https://hub-mirror.c.163.com",
    "https://docker.mirrors.ustc.edu.cn",
    "https://mirror.baidubce.com"
  ],
   "live-restore":true,
   "log-driver":"json-file",
   "log-opts": {"max-size":"200m", "max-file":"3"},
   "storage-driver": "overlay2"
}
EOF

启动并设置开机启动

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start docker
systemctl enable docker

部署Master Node

生成kube-apiserver证书

自签证书颁发机构(CA)

cd ~/TLS/k8s
cat > ca-config.json << EOF
{
  "signing": {
    "default": {
      "expiry": "87600h"
    },
    "profiles": {
      "kubernetes": {
         "expiry": "87600h",
         "usages": [
            "signing",
            "key encipherment",
            "server auth",
            "client auth"
        ]
      }
    }
  }
}
EOF
cat > ca-csr.json << EOF
{
    "CN": "kubernetes",
    "key": {
        "algo": "rsa",
        "size": 2048
    },
    "names": [
        {
            "C": "CN",
            "L": "Beijing",
            "ST": "Beijing",
            "O": "k8s",
            "OU": "System"
        }
    ]
}
EOF

生成证书

cfssl gencert -initca ca-csr.json | cfssljson -bare ca -

使用自签CA签发kube-apiserver HTTPS证书

创建证书申请文件:

cat > server-csr.json << EOF
{
    "CN": "kubernetes",
    "hosts": [
      "10.0.0.1",
      "127.0.0.1",
      "192.168.100.104",
      "192.168.100.105",
      "kubernetes",
      "kubernetes.default",
      "kubernetes.default.svc",
      "kubernetes.default.svc.cluster",
      "kubernetes.default.svc.cluster.local"
    ],
    "key": {
        "algo": "rsa",
        "size": 2048
    },
    "names": [
        {
            "C": "CN",
            "L": "BeiJing",
            "ST": "BeiJing",
            "O": "k8s",
            "OU": "System"
        }
    ]
}
EOF

上述文件hosts字段中IP为所有Master/LB/VIP IP,一个都不能少!为了方便后期扩容可以多写几个预留的IP

生成证书

cfssl gencert -ca=ca.pem -ca-key=ca-key.pem -config=ca-config.json -profile=kubernetes server-csr.json | cfssljson -bare server

下载二进制文件,解压二进制包

cd ~
wget https://dl.k8s.io/v1.19.16/kubernetes-server-linux-amd64.tar.gz
mkdir -p /opt/kubernetes/{bin,cfg,ssl,logs} 
tar zxvf kubernetes-server-linux-amd64.tar.gz
cd kubernetes/server/bin
cp kube-apiserver kube-scheduler kube-controller-manager /opt/kubernetes/bin
cp kubectl /usr/bin/

部署kube-apiserver

创建配置文件

cat > /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-apiserver.conf << EOF
KUBE_APISERVER_OPTS="--logtostderr=false \\
--v=2 \\
--log-dir=/opt/kubernetes/logs \\
--etcd-servers=https://192.168.100.104:2379,https://192.168.100.105:2379 \\
--bind-address=192.168.100.104 \\
--secure-port=6443 \\
--advertise-address=192.168.100.104 \\
--allow-privileged=true \\
--service-cluster-ip-range=10.0.0.0/24 \\
--enable-admission-plugins=NamespaceLifecycle,LimitRanger,ServiceAccount,ResourceQuota,NodeRestriction \\
--authorization-mode=RBAC,Node \\
--enable-bootstrap-token-auth=true \\
--token-auth-file=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/token.csv \\
--service-node-port-range=30000-32767 \\
--kubelet-client-certificate=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/server.pem \\
--kubelet-client-key=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/server-key.pem \\
--tls-cert-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/server.pem  \\
--tls-private-key-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/server-key.pem \\
--client-ca-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \\
--service-account-key-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca-key.pem \\
--etcd-cafile=/opt/etcd/ssl/ca.pem \\
--etcd-certfile=/opt/etcd/ssl/server.pem \\
--etcd-keyfile=/opt/etcd/ssl/server-key.pem \\
--audit-log-maxage=30 \\
--audit-log-maxbackup=3 \\
--audit-log-maxsize=100 \\
--audit-log-path=/opt/kubernetes/logs/k8s-audit.log"
EOF

上面两个\ \ 第一个是转义符,第二个是换行符,使用转义符是为了使用EOF保留换行符。

–logtostderr:启用日志
—v:日志等级
–log-dir:日志目录
–etcd-servers:etcd集群地址
–bind-address:监听地址
–secure-port:https安全端口
–advertise-address:集群通告地址
–allow-privileged:启用授权
–service-cluster-ip-range:Service虚拟IP地址段
–enable-admission-plugins:准入控制模块
–authorization-mode:认证授权,启用RBAC授权和节点自管理
–enable-bootstrap-token-auth:启用TLS bootstrap机制
–token-auth-file:bootstrap token文件
–service-node-port-range:Service nodeport类型默认分配端口范围
–kubelet-client-xxx:apiserver访问kubelet客户端证书
–tls-xxx-file:apiserver https证书
–etcd-xxxfile:连接Etcd集群证书
–audit-log-xxx:审计日志

拷贝刚才生成的证书

把刚才生成的证书拷贝到配置文件中的路径:

cp ~/TLS/k8s/ca*pem ~/TLS/k8s/server*pem /opt/kubernetes/ssl/

启用 TLS Bootstrapping 机制

TLS Bootstraping:Master apiserver启用TLS认证后,Node节点kubelet和kube-proxy要与kube-apiserver进行通信,必须使用CA签发的有效证书才可以,当Node节点很多时,这种客户端证书颁发需要大量工作,同样也会增加集群扩展复杂度。为了简化流程,Kubernetes引入了TLS bootstraping机制来自动颁发客户端证书,kubelet会以一个低权限用户自动向apiserver申请证书,kubelet的证书由apiserver动态签署。所以强烈建议在Node上使用这种方式,目前主要用于kubelet,kube-proxy还是由我们统一颁发一个证书。

创建配置文件中token文件:

echo $(head -c 16 /dev/urandom | od -An -t x | tr -d ' '),kubelet-bootstrap,10001,"system:kubelet-bootstrap" > /opt/kubernetes/cfg/token.csv

systemd管理apiserver

cat > /usr/lib/systemd/system/kube-apiserver.service << EOF
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes API Server
Documentation=https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes
[Service]
EnvironmentFile=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-apiserver.conf
ExecStart=/opt/kubernetes/bin/kube-apiserver \$KUBE_APISERVER_OPTS
Restart=on-failure
[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

启动并设置开机启动

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start kube-apiserver
systemctl enable kube-apiserver

授权kubelet-bootstrap用户允许请求证书

kubectl create clusterrolebinding kubelet-bootstrap \
--clusterrole=system:node-bootstrapper \
--user=kubelet-bootstrap

部署kube-controller-manager

创建配置文件

cat > /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-controller-manager.conf << EOF
KUBE_CONTROLLER_MANAGER_OPTS="--logtostderr=false \\
--v=2 \\
--log-dir=/opt/kubernetes/logs \\
--leader-elect=true \\
--master=127.0.0.1:8080 \\
--bind-address=127.0.0.1 \\
--allocate-node-cidrs=true \\
--cluster-cidr=10.244.0.0/16 \\
--service-cluster-ip-range=10.0.0.0/24 \\
--cluster-signing-cert-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \\
--cluster-signing-key-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca-key.pem  \\
--root-ca-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \\
--service-account-private-key-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca-key.pem \\
--experimental-cluster-signing-duration=87600h0m0s"
EOF

–master:通过本地非安全本地端口8080连接apiserver。

–leader-elect:当该组件启动多个时,自动选举(HA)

cluster-signing-cert-file/–cluster-signing-key-file:自动为kubelet颁发证书的CA,与apiserver保持一致

systemd管理controller-manager

cat > /usr/lib/systemd/system/kube-controller-manager.service << EOF
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes Controller Manager
Documentation=https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes
[Service]
EnvironmentFile=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-controller-manager.conf
ExecStart=/opt/kubernetes/bin/kube-controller-manager \$KUBE_CONTROLLER_MANAGER_OPTS
Restart=on-failure
[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

启动并设置开机启动

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start kube-controller-manager
systemctl enable kube-controller-manager

部署kube-scheduler

创建配置文件

cat > /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-scheduler.conf << EOF
KUBE_SCHEDULER_OPTS="--logtostderr=false \
--v=2 \
--log-dir=/opt/kubernetes/logs \
--leader-elect \
--master=127.0.0.1:8080 \
--bind-address=127.0.0.1"
EOF

–master:通过本地非安全本地端口8080连接apiserver。

–leader-elect:当该组件启动多个时,自动选举(HA)

systemd管理scheduler

cat > /usr/lib/systemd/system/kube-scheduler.service << EOF
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes Scheduler
Documentation=https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes
[Service]
EnvironmentFile=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-scheduler.conf
ExecStart=/opt/kubernetes/bin/kube-scheduler \$KUBE_SCHEDULER_OPTS
Restart=on-failure
[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

启动并设置开机启动

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start kube-scheduler
systemctl enable kube-scheduler

部署kubectl

生成kubectl连接集群的证书

cat > ~/TLS/k8s/admin-csr.json <<EOF
{
  "CN": "admin",
  "hosts": [],
  "key": {
    "algo": "rsa",
    "size": 2048
  },
  "names": [
    {
      "C": "CN",
      "L": "BeiJing",
      "ST": "BeiJing",
      "O": "system:masters",
      "OU": "System"
    }
  ]
}
EOF

生产证书

cd ~/TLS/k8s/
cfssl gencert -ca=ca.pem -ca-key=ca-key.pem -config=ca-config.json -profile=kubernetes admin-csr.json | cfssljson -bare admin

生成kubeconfig文件

mkdir /root/.kube
cd ~/TLS/k8s/

KUBE_CONFIG="/root/.kube/config"
KUBE_APISERVER="https://192.168.100.104:6443"

kubectl config set-cluster kubernetes \
  --certificate-authority=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \
  --embed-certs=true \
  --server=${KUBE_APISERVER} \
  --kubeconfig=${KUBE_CONFIG}
kubectl config set-credentials cluster-admin \
  --client-certificate=./admin.pem \
  --client-key=./admin-key.pem \
  --embed-certs=true \
  --kubeconfig=${KUBE_CONFIG}
kubectl config set-context default \
  --cluster=kubernetes \
  --user=cluster-admin \
  --kubeconfig=${KUBE_CONFIG}
kubectl config use-context default --kubeconfig=${KUBE_CONFIG}

查看当前集群组件状态

kubectl get cs

[root@k8s-m1 ssl]# kubectl get cs
Warning: v1 ComponentStatus is deprecated in v1.19+
NAME                 STATUS    MESSAGE             ERROR
scheduler            Healthy   ok
controller-manager   Healthy   ok
etcd-1               Healthy   {"health":"true"}
etcd-0               Healthy   {"health":"true"}

# 如上输出说明Master节点组件运行正常

部署Worker Node

说明:下面还是在Master Node上操作,即同时作为Worker Node

创建工作目录并拷贝二进制文件

在所有worker node创建工作目录

cd ~
mkdir -p /opt/kubernetes/{bin,cfg,ssl,logs}
cd kubernetes/server/bin
cp kubelet kube-proxy /opt/kubernetes/bin

部署kubelet

创建配置文件

cat > /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kubelet.conf << EOF
KUBELET_OPTS="--logtostderr=false \\
--v=2 \\
--log-dir=/opt/kubernetes/logs \\
--hostname-override=k8s-m1 \\  # 特别主要地方
--network-plugin=cni \\
--kubeconfig=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kubelet.kubeconfig \\
--bootstrap-kubeconfig=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/bootstrap.kubeconfig \\
--config=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kubelet-config.yml \\
--cert-dir=/opt/kubernetes/ssl \\
--pod-infra-container-image=lizhenliang/pause-amd64:3.0"
EOF

–hostname-override:显示名称,集群中唯一

–network-plugin:启用CNI

–kubeconfig:空路径,会自动生成,后面用于连接apiserver

–bootstrap-kubeconfig:首次启动向apiserver申请证书

–config:配置参数文件

–cert-dir:kubelet证书生成目录

–pod-infra-container-image:管理Pod网络容器的镜像

配置参数文件

cat > /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kubelet-config.yml << EOF
kind: KubeletConfiguration
apiVersion: kubelet.config.k8s.io/v1beta1
address: 0.0.0.0
port: 10250
readOnlyPort: 10255
cgroupDriver: cgroupfs
clusterDNS:
- 10.0.0.2
clusterDomain: cluster.local 
failSwapOn: false
authentication:
  anonymous:
    enabled: false
  webhook:
    cacheTTL: 2m0s
    enabled: true
  x509:
    clientCAFile: /opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem 
authorization:
  mode: Webhook
  webhook:
    cacheAuthorizedTTL: 5m0s
    cacheUnauthorizedTTL: 30s
evictionHard:
  imagefs.available: 15%
  memory.available: 100Mi
  nodefs.available: 10%
  nodefs.inodesFree: 5%
maxOpenFiles: 1000000
maxPods: 110
EOF

生成bootstrap.kubeconfig文件

cd ~
KUBE_APISERVER="https://192.168.100.104:6443" # apiserver IP:PORT
TOKEN="230abc77b63e0c60b8c35451c47cc865" # 与token.csv里保持一致

# 生成 kubelet bootstrap kubeconfig 配置文件
kubectl config set-cluster kubernetes \
  --certificate-authority=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \
  --embed-certs=true \
  --server=${KUBE_APISERVER} \
  --kubeconfig=bootstrap.kubeconfig
kubectl config set-credentials "kubelet-bootstrap" \
  --token=${TOKEN} \
  --kubeconfig=bootstrap.kubeconfig
kubectl config set-context default \
  --cluster=kubernetes \
  --user="kubelet-bootstrap" \
  --kubeconfig=bootstrap.kubeconfig
kubectl config use-context default --kubeconfig=bootstrap.kubeconfig

拷贝到配置文件路径:cp bootstrap.kubeconfig /opt/kubernetes/cfg

systemd管理kubelet

cat > /usr/lib/systemd/system/kubelet.service << EOF
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes Kubelet
After=docker.service
[Service]
EnvironmentFile=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kubelet.conf
ExecStart=/opt/kubernetes/bin/kubelet \$KUBELET_OPTS
Restart=on-failure
LimitNOFILE=65536
[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

启动并设置开机启动

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start kubelet
systemctl enable kubelet

批准kubelet证书申请并加入集群

查看kubelet证书请求

kubectl get csr

批准申请

kubectl certificate approve node-csr-xxxxxxx

查看节点

[root@k8s-m1 ssl]# kubectl get node
NAME     STATUS     ROLES    AGE   VERSION
k8s-m1   NotReady   <none>   6s    v1.19.16

由于网络插件还没有部署,节点会没有准备就绪 NotReady

部署kube-proxy

创建配置文件

cat > /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-proxy.conf << EOF
KUBE_PROXY_OPTS="--logtostderr=false \\
--v=2 \\
--log-dir=/opt/kubernetes/logs \\
--config=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-proxy-config.yml"
EOF

配置参数文件

cat > /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-proxy-config.yml << EOF
kind: KubeProxyConfiguration
apiVersion: kubeproxy.config.k8s.io/v1alpha1
bindAddress: 0.0.0.0
metricsBindAddress: 0.0.0.0:10249
clientConnection:
  kubeconfig: /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-proxy.kubeconfig
hostnameOverride: k8s-m1
clusterCIDR: 10.0.0.0/24
EOF

生成kube-proxy.kubeconfig文件

生成kube-proxy证书
# 切换工作目录
cd ~/TLS/k8s

# 创建证书请求文件
cat > kube-proxy-csr.json << EOF
{
  "CN": "system:kube-proxy",
  "hosts": [],
  "key": {
    "algo": "rsa",
    "size": 2048
  },
  "names": [
    {
      "C": "CN",
      "L": "BeiJing",
      "ST": "BeiJing",
      "O": "k8s",
      "OU": "System"
    }
  ]
}
EOF

# 生成证书
cfssl gencert -ca=ca.pem -ca-key=ca-key.pem -config=ca-config.json -profile=kubernetes kube-proxy-csr.json | cfssljson -bare kube-proxy
生成kubeconfig文件
KUBE_APISERVER="https://192.168.100.104:6443"

kubectl config set-cluster kubernetes \
  --certificate-authority=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \
  --embed-certs=true \
  --server=${KUBE_APISERVER} \
  --kubeconfig=kube-proxy.kubeconfig
kubectl config set-credentials kube-proxy \
  --client-certificate=./kube-proxy.pem \
  --client-key=./kube-proxy-key.pem \
  --embed-certs=true \
  --kubeconfig=kube-proxy.kubeconfig
kubectl config set-context default \
  --cluster=kubernetes \
  --user=kube-proxy \
  --kubeconfig=kube-proxy.kubeconfig
kubectl config use-context default --kubeconfig=kube-proxy.kubeconfig

拷贝到配置文件指定路径:cp kube-proxy.kubeconfig /opt/kubernetes/cfg/

systemd管理kube-proxy

cat > /usr/lib/systemd/system/kube-proxy.service << EOF
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes Proxy
After=network.target
[Service]
EnvironmentFile=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-proxy.conf
ExecStart=/opt/kubernetes/bin/kube-proxy \$KUBE_PROXY_OPTS
Restart=on-failure
LimitNOFILE=65536
[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

启动并设置开机启动

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start kube-proxy
systemctl enable kube-proxy

部署CNI网络

下载CNI二进制文件,解压二进制包并移动到默认工作目录:

d ~
wget https://github.com/containernetworking/plugins/releases/download/v0.8.6/cni-plugins-linux-amd64-v0.8.6.tgz
mkdir -p /opt/cni/bin
tar zxvf cni-plugins-linux-amd64-v0.8.6.tgz -C /opt/cni/bin

部署CNI网络,创建flannel网络插件

wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/coreos/flannel/master/Documentation/kube-flannel.yml
mv kube-flannel.yml /opt/kubernetes/cfg/

kubectl apply -f /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-flannel.yml

# 查看集群状态
kubectl get nodes

授权apiserver访问kubelet

cat > /opt/kubernetes/cfg/apiserver-to-kubelet-rbac.yaml << EOF
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: ClusterRole
metadata:
  annotations:
    rbac.authorization.kubernetes.io/autoupdate: "true"
  labels:
    kubernetes.io/bootstrapping: rbac-defaults
  name: system:kube-apiserver-to-kubelet
rules:
  - apiGroups:
      - ""
    resources:
      - nodes/proxy
      - nodes/stats
      - nodes/log
      - nodes/spec
      - nodes/metrics
      - pods/log
    verbs:
      - "*"
---
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: ClusterRoleBinding
metadata:
  name: system:kube-apiserver
  namespace: ""
roleRef:
  apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
  kind: ClusterRole
  name: system:kube-apiserver-to-kubelet
subjects:
  - apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
    kind: User
    name: kubernetes
EOF


kubectl apply -f /opt/kubernetes/cfg/apiserver-to-kubelet-rbac.yaml

新增加Worker Node

拷贝已部署好的Node相关文件到新节点

如:在master节点将Worker Node涉及文件拷贝到新节点192.168.100.105(k8s-n1)

scp -r /opt/kubernetes root@k8s-n1:/opt/

scp -r /usr/lib/systemd/system/{kubelet,kube-proxy}.service root@k8s-n1:/usr/lib/systemd/system

scp -r /opt/cni/ root@k8s-n1:/opt/

删除kubelet证书和kubeconfig文件(在k8s-n1上执行)

rm -f /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kubelet.kubeconfig 
rm -f /opt/kubernetes/ssl/kubelet*

这几个文件是证书申请审批后自动生成的,每个Node不同,必须删除重新生成。

修改配置中的hostname

vi /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kubelet.conf
--hostname-override=k8s-n1

vi /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-proxy-config.yml
hostnameOverride: k8s-n1

启动并设置开机启动(在k8s-n1上执行)

systemctl daemon-reload

systemctl start kubelet
systemctl enable kubelet

systemctl start kube-proxy
systemctl enable kube-proxy

在Master上批准新Node kubelet证书申请

kubectl get csr

kubectl certificate approve node-csr-xxxxxxx

查看Node状态

[root@k8s-m1 cfg]# kubectl get node
NAME     STATUS   ROLES    AGE     VERSION
k8s-m1   Ready    <none>   6h21m   v1.19.16
k8s-n1   Ready    <none>   5h55m   v1.19.16

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